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The history of Internet

Thursday - March 30, 2017 10:18 am , Category : Fun Facts

The “network of network “that connects computers throughout the world has its origins in a problem that arose as the machines become more sophisticated in the 1950’s. How can many users in a large organization share computational power? Programmers figured out how to break information into small packets that could be routed through different available circuits, and ever faster computers reassembled the packets more and more quickly.

The defense and airline industry’s first took advantage of networks in the 1950’s with the pentagon adopting a new computer-based command and control system and American Airlines teaming with IBM on the sabre passenger reservation system.

In 1969, the Defense  Advanced Research projects Agency (DARPA) established the  Advanced Research projects Agency network, ARPANET  the precursor to today’s internet.  Through ARPANET, major U.S. government and university research computers shared computing power and information, ARPANET programmers developed packet switching and other basic tool for sending messages and transferring files. such as simple  mail transfer protocol (SMPT) and file transfer protocol (FTP).

In the 1970’s DARPA commissioned work on ‘internetting”, that is communications among computer networks. Researchers Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn developed two important methods - The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), which establish rules for collecting and reassembling data packets, and the Internet Protocol (IP), which routed data to the correct endpoint by providing numerical address for interconnected machines.
In the 1980’s other government agencies and universities began tapping into the system. The National Science Foundation funded supercomputing centers at five universities, with a so-called backbone connecting them nationally. Gradually the system opened up to commercial networks, which now largely oversee a collection of regional network access points (NAPs) The exploding set of numbered addresses, meanwhile, is administered by the non-profit internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers.

As access expanded, so did ease of use. Swiss researcher Tim Berners-Lee Developed Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) in the early 1990s, which allowed various elements- graphics, imagery, and text to be collected together into a “page” with links and references to other pages. Pages accessible through this growing “World Wide Web” were identified by a textual label, called a Universal Resource Locator(URL) At the University of IIIinois, Marc Andreessen devolved Mosaic the World’s first Web ”browser” software by which computer users can view pages and navigate the internet with the use of a computer mouse. 

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